Blackwell Genealogy

| John Blackwell 1775 |
George Blackwell 1801 | Children of George Blackwell 1801 |
| John Blackwell | Children of John Blackwell |
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| Henry Blackwell | Children of Henry Blackwell |
| William Blackwell | Children of William Blackwell |
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Letters to and from various family members


                                                          MANY BROKEN LINKS ARE ON THIS PAGE.  I AM WORKING AT CLEANING THEM UP.

Lebanon Genealogical Society

MINNESOTA - Birth and Death Certificates
Minnesota Birth Certificates - On Line   -  Excellent
Minnesota Death Certificates - On Line -  Excellent
Minnesota Death Index, 1908-2002 (

Meeker County, Minnesota
Meeker County Historical Society
Museum and GAR Hall
308 No Holcombe Ave.
Litchfield, MN 55355

Minnesota Historical Society
Learn about Minnesota -

Douglas County Cemeteries is no longer offered as a free source of information, some sections can be accessed without charge. 
Message Boards:  or
Map Center:       
The Learning Center:  
Ancestry World Tree:   
Genealogy Program       
    (Registration required)

Compendium of Northern Minnesota
Important Reading for Blackwell Researchers on Henry Blackwell and VanLoon History
- Compendium of Northern Minnesota (1)  About Henry Blackwell 10.2.5
- Compendium of Northern Minnesota (2)  About Thomas Jefferson VanLoon

Important Reading for VanLoon Researchers -
"What We Remember" by the Grandchildren of Minor Van Loon

Minnesota County Ancestry Site

The Early Days of Douglas County
Douglas County Minnesota General Info

Minnesota History Links
Territorial Map 1851

Territorial Map 1857
Territorial Map 1858
State Map 1895

The Minnesota Historical Society
Origin of Minnesota County Names
The Archives

Minnesota Place & People Names
Minnesota Historical Society - Places

Miscellaneous Census Records and Databases
The 1849 Minnesota Territorial 'Censes'

Cemetery Records

Minnesota Cemetery Records Online-County Index
Warsaw Cemetery, Rice County

Cemetery Record Databases
African American Cemeteries Online
Cemeteries Online -County Index
Department of Veterans Affairs-National Cemetery Association
The Political Graveyard
U.S. Cemeteries

Cemetery Locations
Douglas County, MN

Minnesota Territorial Census

1849 Minnesota Census
1860 Douglas Co., MN  Census
This is an excellent Link that has much to offer.  Search it well.

Benton County
1850 Census Index

Carver County
1860 Census Index Images
1860 Census of Carver County
1870 Census of Carver County

Dakota County
1850 Census Index Images

Douglas County
1860 Federal Census - Douglas County

Douglas County Census 1860
1860  Douglas County Index File
1860  Douglas County Census

Faribault County
1860 Census Faribault County
1860 Census Index Download
1860 Census Faribault County - Images

Itasca County
1850 Census Index Images

Lac Qui Parle County
Death Records 1880-1898, Lac Qui Parle County

Mankahta County
1850 Census Index Images

Mille Lacs County
1910 census of Milaca Township, Mille Lacs Co,

Murray County
1870 Federal Census Index
1870 Federal Census Murray County

Nobles County
1900 Federal Census, Town of Adrian
1900 Federal Census, Town of Adrian

Ottertail County
1860 Census Ottertail County

Pembina County
1850 Census Index Images

Pipestone County
1880 Census Pipestone County
Pipestone County Marriage Records, 1879-1891

Ramsey County
1850 Census Index Images

St. Louis County
1865 State Census St. Louis County
1870-1875 Census (Polish Names) St. Louis County
1880 Census (Polish Names) St. Louis County
1885 Census (Polish Names) St. Louis County
1910 Federal Census St. Louis County
1920 Census Index for Gilbert, MN

Stearns County
1883 List of Pensioners

Steele County
1860 Census Index Steele County

Todd County
1883 List of Pensioners
1870 Census Todd County

Traverse County
1883 List of Pensioners

Wabasha County
1883 List of Pensioners
1850 Census Index Images
1900 Census Wabasha County
1900 Federal Census Chester Twp.

Wadena County
1895 Census for Blueberry Twp, Wadena Co
1895 Census for Huntersville, Wadena Co
1895 Census for Menahga Precinct,Wadena Co
1885 Census for Shell River Precinct, Wadena Co
1895 Census for Shell River Township, Wadena Co
1883 List of Pensioners
Wadena County Death Index (1880 - February 1994)

Wahnata County
1850 Census Index Images

Waseca County
1883 List of Pensioner
1860 Census Images
1860 Census Index Waseca County Images

Washington County
1883 List of Pensioners
1850 Census Index Images

Wilkin County
1883 List of Pensioners

Winona County
1883 List of Pensioners

Wright County
1883 List of Pensioners

Yellow Medicine County
1883 List of Pensioners
Personal Property Tax Payers of 1872, Yellow Medicine Co

Minnesota Links
MNGenWeb, Blue Earth, Swift, St. Louis
Minnesota Genealogy Society.
1920 Census Surname Index for Gilbert

Miscellaneous Census Records and Database Links
The 1849 Minnesota Territorial 'Sences'
MN Births, 1900-1907 (MHS)
Minnesota Death Certificate Search-1908-1955
Minnesota Death Index, 1908-2002 ( 

Cemetery Record Databases
African American Cemeteries Online
Cemeteries Online -County Index
D' Cemetery Junction
Department of Veterans Affairs-National Cemetery Association
Fayetteville National Cemetery-Civil War
Minnesota Tombstone Project
The Political Graveyard
U.S. Cemeteries

Census information and More from many other areas of Minnesota
Douglas County 1860 Census
More on Minnesota
Census Finder
Online Census - Online   1850 to 1920 All Counties

Listing of all Douglas County Surveyors
Surveyors List

History - Anoka, MN
Anoka, MN    Members of Minnesota Territorial Pioneers, 1901
Land Owners in 1888 - Anoka, MN
Military - Anoka, MN  List of Pensioners 1883

Minnesota Location Finder
Minnesota Places Location Finder - On Line

MN County Maps


Memoirs of Lois Clarinda Twichell 
Ron Mosocco  -  Civil War  - 
Marsha Baergen -  Civil War
Frost, Geo. W. -  In Cavalry Unit -
The Attach on the 'Jones' & 'Bakers' - Indian War Stories
Why the Indians Went to War - The Dakota Conflict
Almost a Massacre  - Bravery saved the day.

Minnesota - General Information
Alexandria - Interesting article by Ginny Swartz - Henry Blackwell information
Historic Fort Snelling

Minnesota Indian Uprising






Click on Tombstone
Visit their Website -  Maps and other excellent information.

Western New York Counties - 1810
Allegany    Genesee    Ontario    Niagara    Cattaraugus    Chautauqua

Western New York Counties - 1820
Allegany    Cattaraugus    Chautauqua    Genesee    Niagara    Ontario

Western New York Counties - 1830
Allegany    Cattaraugus    Chautauqua    Niagara    Ontario   
Genesee    Erie    Monroe    Livingston    Wayne    Yates    Orleans



Canadian Links

Canada GenWeb Project
Canadian Genealogy - Government Site

National Archives of Canada (includes the index to the 1871 census of Ontario).
Canadian Genealogy and History Links
Upper Canada Genealogy.
Buckingham Press publishes the Canadian-American Genealogical Digest.
American-Canadian Genealogical Society (ACGS)
Canadian Genealogical Projects Registry
The Global Gazette, Canada's Online Genealogy & Heritage Magazine
Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild is a group of volunteers who transcribe passenger lists
GENERATIONS: Memorials That Live On, Canadian obituaries
British Home Children,
Canada's Invisible Immigrants

Ontario 1871 Census
Ontario Province Search Page  
Federal Census of 1871   Ontario Province Search Page
Blackwell Search Page for Ontario   Blackwell Surname for Ontario 1871 Census 

Note:  Ontario was the most active province for people in the early days of Canada and to this day,
has the largest population in Canada compared to any other Province. 

British Columbia
British Columbia (Death Index - Birth Index - Marriage Index)   Click Here
British Columbia GenWeb
British Columbia Archives (Canada)
British Columbia History Page
British Columbia Cemetery Finding Aid
Abbotsford Genealogical Society (British Columbia)
Kamloops Family History Society
Kelowna & District Genealogical Society (British Columbia)
Delta History On-line
Canadian Genealogy and History Links With many National, Provincial and Territorial Links
British Columbia Archives

British Columbia Cemetery Finding Aid

Canada - Federal Government Sites
National Archives of Canada

Saskatchewan Homestead Index
Saskatchewan Cemeteries Project

Immigrants landing by Ship
Immigrants to Canada - And the Ships they came on

To View many more Links - Click Here



General Links
General Links to Various Genealogy Sources


Genealogy Links
New England History and Genealogy
Complete list of all Minnesota Historical Societies
Genealogy Resources on the Web
Indian River Genealogy Society - Florida
Minnesota Gen-Web Project
Juneau County Genealogy - Wisconsin
Memoirs of Children of Minor VanLoon
Cyndi's List - Minnesota
Library of Congress

Help to get Started (or just search for great information)
Genealogists and Family Historians   Link suggested by Erika Lynch
Important Links offered on "Genealogists and Family Historians

The United State Gen Web Project (USGenWeb) has servers for every state that give a wealth of resources.
The USGenWeb project includes a growing archive of online primary sources files.
The U.S. National Archives & Records Administration's Access to Archival Databases gives access to hundreds of databases.
Here is a link to USA People Search for Genealogists and Family Historians.  Suggested by Erika (Thank you)
The US Census Bureau has a draft FAQ on genealogy.
Information about where to obtain Vital Records Information
The Records Room is a guide to U.S. vital and other records
United States Internet Genealogical Society
A listing of over 1500 U.S. Newspapers
The Korean War Project Home Page has access to Korean War and Vietnamese War Casualty Databases.
Links to information about States of the Union
A list of State Government WWW/Gopher/etc Servers.
The Malcolm H. Stern NARA Gift Fund helps convert to microfilm NARA records not available to genealogical researchers.
The National Genealogical Society.
Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation
Microfilm Roll Numbers for USA Passenger Arrival Records
The Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild is a group of volunteers who transcribe passenger lists
Harold Ralston's Ship Passenger List links
Military and War Links
Access Genealogy: Military and Civil War resource center
Civil War Rosters arranged by state
Civil War, Revolutionary War, WW1, and WW2 Records Links
Civil War Resources On The Net
The Freedmens Bureau Online
Ship Passenger Lists
American-Canadian Genealogical Society (ACGS)
ACWRoots - American Civil War History and Genealogy
National Society Sons and Daughters of the Pilgrims, National Society Daughters of the American Revolution   
Sasebo Chapter, U.S. Presidential Genealogies on the Web
Census Online - Census Sites on the Web
Censuslinks on the Internet
The Obituary Links Page
U.S. Land & Property Research
Census Online and Other Diggins
1890 Veterans and Widows Special Census and 1883 Pensioners Online
Beyond Texas Genealogy, links to key sites for each state
Purple Heart database
Rivermen & Riverboats


Societies Supporting Genealogy
Minnesota Genealogical Society

United Kingdom Genealogy
Civil War Genealogy Resources

USGenWeb Archives - MN table of contents
British Columbia Cemetery Finding Aid
Douglas County Genealogical Society
Douglas County, Minnesota

Minnesota Genealogy - Gen Web Project
Alberta Family Histories Society

Other Site Supporting the Blackwell Family Genealogy in Whole or in Part

The Website of Laurie Barrett

Links to the Purfeerst Family





Cheltenham Sites
Cheltenham, England - Commercial Directory 1858 - 1859
Gloucester Parish Churches
Gloucester Parish Church Locations
Find a Church - United Kingdom


To View many more Links - Click Here




First Cousins - Twice Removed - Etc. Etc.
What do these terms mean?

First Cousin
Your first cousins have the same Grandparents as you. 
These would be other children that are from your parent's brothers and sisters (your Aunts and Uncles)

Second Cousin
As a first cousin has the same Grandparents, a second cousin has the same great grandparents. 
However, they do not have the same grandparents as yours. (Otherwise they would be your first cousins)

Third Cousins
Third cousins have the same G. G. Grandparents as you......
Fourth cousins have the same G. G. G. Grandparents as you.....
This continues on ...........

If your 'removed' from a family member, it means you are in different generations. 
However, this does not include your "First Cousin" as you are both in the same generation. 
Therefore, you are removed when you are at least one generation apart.  (Once Removed) 
If you are two generations apart then you are "Twice Removed"



Victoria, British Columbia
Member - Douglas County Historical Society
Contact Us

Marilee Larkey
Location - Minnesota
See Contact Us to find how to contact Marilee

308 Marshall Avenue North
Litchfield, MN 55355



Ailments of our Ancestors  -  What they called it and what it really was

Click on the Letter of the "OLD NAME" of the disease.

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

Ablepsy - Blindness
Ague - Malarial Fever
American plague - Yellow fever
Anasarca - Generalized massive edema
Aphonia - Laryngitis
Aphtha - The infant disease "thrush"
Apoplexy - Paralysis due to stroke
Asphycsia/Asphycsia - Cyanotic and lack of oxygen
Atrophy - Wasting away or diminishing in size.

Bad Blood - Syphilis
Bilious fever - Typhoid, malaria, hepatitis or elevated temperature and bile emesis
Biliousness - Jaundice associated with liver disease
Black plague or death - Bubonic plague
Black fever - Acute infection with high temperature and dark red skin lesions and high mortality rate
Black pox - Black Small pox
Black vomit - Vomiting old black blood due to ulcers or yellow fever
Blackwater fever - Dark urine associated with high temperature
Bladder in throat - Diphtheria (Seen on death certificates)
Blood poisoning - Bacterial infection; septicemia
Bloody flux - Bloody stools
Bloody sweat - Sweating sickness
Bone shave - Sciatica
Brain fever - Meningitis
Breakbone - Dengue fever
Bright's disease - Chronic inflammatory disease of kidneys
Bronze John - Yellow fever
Bule - Boil, tumor or swelling

Cachexy - Malnutrition
Cacogastric - Upset stomach
Cacospysy - Irregular pulse
Caduceus - Subject to falling sickness or epilepsy
Camp fever - Typhus; aka Camp diarrhea
Canine madness - Rabies, hydrophobia
Canker - Ulceration of mouth or lips or herpes simplex
Catalepsy - Seizures / trances
Catarrhal - Nose and throat discharge from cold or allergy
Cerebritis - Inflammation of cerebrum or lead poisoning
Chilblain - Swelling of extremities caused by exposure to cold
Child bed fever - Infection following birth of a child
Chin cough - Whooping cough
Chlorosis - Iron deficiency anemia
Cholera - Acute severe contagious diarrhea with intestinal lining sloughing
Cholera morbus - Characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, elevated temperature, etc. Could be appendicitis
Cholecystitus - Inflammation of the gall bladder
Cholelithiasis - Gall stones
Chorea - Disease characterized by convulsions, contortions and dancing
Cold plague - Ague which is characterized by chills
Colic - An abdominal pain and cramping
Congestive chills - Malaria
Consumption - Tuberculosis
Congestion - Any collection of fluid in an organ, like the lungs
Congestive chills - Malaria with diarrhea
Congestive fever - Malaria
Corruption - Infection
Coryza - A cold
Costiveness - Constipation
Cramp colic - Appendicitis
Crop sickness - Overextended stomach
Croup - Laryngitis, diphtheria, or strep throat
Cyanosis - Dark skin color from lack of oxygen in blood
Cynanche - Diseases of throat
Cystitis - Inflammation of the bladde

Day fever - Fever lasting one day; sweating sickness
Debility - Lack of movement or staying in bed
Decrepitude - Feebleness due to old age
Delirium tremens - Hallucinations due to alcoholism
Dengue - Infectious fever endemic to East Africa
Dentition - Cutting of teeth
Deplumation - Tumor of the eyelids which causes hair loss
Devil's Grip - Pleurisy / bronchitis
Diary fever - A fever that lasts one day
Diphtheria - Contagious disease of the throat
Distemper - Usually animal disease with malaise, discharge from nose and throat, anorexia
Dock fever - Yellow fever
Dropsy - Edema (swelling), often caused by kidney or heart disease
Dropsy of the Brain - Encephalitis
Dry Bellyache - Lead poisoning
Dyscrasy - An abnormal body condition
Dysentery - Inflammation of colon with frequent passage of mucous and blood
Dysorexy - Reduced appetite
Dyspepsia - Indigestion and heartburn. Heart attack symptoms
Dysury - Difficulty in urination

Eclampsy - Symptoms of epilepsy, convulsions during labor
Ecstasy - A form of catalepsy characterized by loss of reason
Edema - Nephrosis; swelling of tissues
Edema of lungs - Congestive heart failure, a form of dropsy
Eel thing - Erysipelas
Elephantiasis - A form of leprosy
Encephalitis - Swelling of brain; aka sleeping sickness
Enteric fever - Typhoid fever
Enterocolitis - Inflammation of the intestines
Enteritis - Inflations of the bowels
Epitaxis - Nose bleed
Erysipelas - Contagious skin disease, due to
Streptococci with vesicular and bulbous lesions
Extravasted blood - Rupture of a blood vessel

Falling sickness - Epilepsy
Fatty Liver - Cirrhosis of liver
Fits - Sudden attack or seizure of muscle activity
Flux - An excessive flow or discharge of fluid like hemorrhage or diarrhea
Flux of humour - Circulation
French pox - Syphilis

Gathering - A collection of pus
Glandular fever - Mononucleosis
Great pox - Syphilis
Green fever / sickness - Anemia
Grippe/grip - Influenza like symptoms
Grocer's itch - Skin disease caused by mites in sugar or flour

Heart sickness - Condition caused by loss of salt from body
Heat stroke - Body temperature elevates because of surrounding environment temperature
and body does not perspire to reduce temperature. ....Coma and death result if not reversed
Hectical complaint - Recurrent fever
Hematemesis - Vomiting blood
Hematuria - Bloody urine
Hemiplegy - Paralysis of one side of body
Hip gout - Osteomylitis
Horrors - Delirium tremens
Hydrocephalus - Enlarged head, water on the brain
Hydropericardium - Heart dropsy
Hydrophobia - Rabies
Hydrothroax - Dropsy in chest
Hypertrophic - Enlargement of organ, like the heart

Impetigo - Contagious skin disease characterized by pustules
Inanition - Physical condition resulting from lack of food
Infantile paralysis - Polio
Intestinal colic - Abdominal pain due to improper diet
Jail fever - Typhus
Jaundice - Condition caused by blockage of intestines
King's evil - Tuberculosis of neck and lymph glands
Kruchhusten - Whooping cough

Lagrippe - Influenza
Lockjaw - Tetanus or infectious disease affecting the muscles of the neck and jaw. Untreated, it is fatal in 8 days
Long sickness - Tuberculosis
Lues disease - Syphilis
Lues venera - Venereal disease
Lumbago - Back pain
Lung fever - Pneumonia
Lung sickness - Tuberculosis
Lying in - Time of delivery of infant

Malignant sore throat - Diphtheria
Mania - Insanity
Marasmus - Progressive wasting away of body, like malnutrition
Membranous Croup - Diphtheria
Meningitis - Inflations of brain or spinal cord
Metritis - Inflammation of uterus or purulent vaginal discharge
Miasma - Poisonous vapors thought to infect the air
Milk fever - Disease from drinking contaminated milk, like undulant fever or brucellosis
Milk leg - Post partum thrombophlebitis
Milk sickness - Disease from milk of cattle which had eaten poisonous weeds
Mormal - Gangrene
Morphew - Scurvy blisters on the body
Mortification - Gangrene of necrotic tissue
Myelitis - Inflammation of the spine
Myocarditis - Inflammation of heart muscles

Necrosis - Mortification of bones or tissue
Nephrosis - Kidney degeneration
Nepritis - Inflammation of kidneys
Nervous prostration - Extreme exhaustion from inability to control physical and mental activities
Neuralgia - Described as discomfort, such as "Headache" was neuralgia in head
Nostalgia - Homesickness

Palsy - Paralysis or uncontrolled movement of controlled muscles. It was listed as "Cause of death"
Paroxysm - Convulsion
Pemphigus - Skin disease of watery blisters
Pericarditis - Inflammation of heart
Peripneumonia - Inflammation of lungs
Peritonotis - Inflammation of abdominal area
Petechial Fever - Fever characterized by skin spotting
Phthiriasis - Lice infestation
Phthisis - Chronic wasting away or a name for tuberculosis
Plague - An acute febrile highly infectious disease with a high fatality rate
Pleurisy - Any pain in the chest area with each breath
Podagra - Gout
Poliomyelitis - Polio
Potter's asthma - Fibroid pthisis
Pott's disease - Tuberculosis of spine
Puerperal exhaustion - Death due to childbirth
Puerperal fever - Elevated temperature after giving birth to an infant
Puking fever - Milk sickness
Putrid fever - Diphtheria.

Quinsy - Tonsillitis.

Remitting fever - Malaria
Rheumatism - Any disorder associated with pain in joints
Rickets - Disease of skeletal system
Rose cold - Hay fever or nasal symptoms of an allergy
Rubeola - German measles

Sanguineous crust - Scab
Scarlatina - Scarlet fever
Scarlet fever - A disease characterized by red rash
Scarlet rash - Roseola
Sciatica - Rheumatism in the hips
Scirrhus - Cancerous tumors
Scotomy - Dizziness, nausea and dimness of sight
Scrivener's palsy - Writer's cramp
Screws - Rheumatism
Scrofula - Tuberculosis of neck lymph glands.  Progresses slowly with abscesses and pistulas develop.
Scrumpox - Skin disease, impetigo
Scurvy - Lack of vitamin C. Symptoms of weakness, spongy gums and hemorrhages under skin
Septicemia - Blood poisoning
Shakes - Delirium tremens
Shaking - Chills, ague
Shingles - Viral disease with skin blisters
Ship fever - Typhus
Siriasis - Inflammation of the brain due to sun exposure
Sloes - Milk sickness
Small pox - Contagious disease with fever and blisters
Softening of brain - Result of stroke or hemorrhage in the brain, with an end result of the tissue softening in that area
Sore throat distemper - Diphtheria or quinsy
Spanish influenza - Epidemic influenza
Spasms - Sudden involuntary contraction of muscle or group of muscles, like a convulsion
Spina bifida - Deformity of spine
Spotted fever - Either typhus or meningitis
Sprue - Tropical disease characterized by intestinal disorders and sore throat
St. Anthony's fire - Also erysipelas, but named so because of affected skin areas are bright red in appearance
St. Vitas dance - Ceaseless occurrence of rapid complex jerking movements performed involuntary
Stomatitis- Inflammation of the mouth
Stranger's fever - Yellow fever
Strangery - Rupture
Sudor anglicus - Sweating sickness
Summer complaint - Diarrhea, usually in infants caused by spoiled milk
Sunstroke - Uncontrolled elevation of body temperature due to environment heat. Lack of sodium in the body is a predisposing cause
Swamp sickness - Could be malaria, typhoid or encephalitis
Sweating sickness - Infectious and fatal disease common to UK in 15th century

Tetanus - Infectious fever characterized by high fever, headache and dizziness
Thrombosis - Blood clot inside blood vessel
Thrush - Childhood disease characterized by spots on mouth, lips and throat
Tick fever - Rocky mountain spotted fever
Toxemia of pregnancy - Eclampsia
Trench mouth - Painful ulcers found along gum line, Caused by poor nutrition and poor hygiene
Tussis convulsiva - Whooping cough
Typhus - Infectious fever characterized high fever, headache, and dizziness

Variola - Smallpox
Venesection - Bleeding
Viper's dance - St. Vitus Dance

Water on brain - Enlarged head
White swelling - Tuberculosis of the bone
Winter fever - Pneumonia
Womb fever - Infection of the uterus.
Worm fit - Convulsions associated with teething, worms, elevated temperature or diarrhea

Yellowjacket - Yellow fever.


From the wonderful web pages of we have copied this information on the "Nominee"
She is the vessel that brought the Twichell Family to Minnesota back in 1852


Smith's str.Nominee was one of many steamboats that brought the new immigrants and their families to Winona and other communities along the Upper Mississippi River. Of course these boats did not only carry passengers. They also delivered goods and freight of all kinds to the Winona landing. Many were also contracted by the U.S. Government to carry the mail. The Nominee and other boats that you can see in this small collection of photographs are good examples of the packet boats that landed at Winona during the Minnesota Territorial period. During this time, most of the boats were being built at cities along the Ohio River. This is, of course, because these towns had long since been settled, had iron works, lumber yards and the skilled laborers necessary for the manufacture of such wondrous specimens. As the Upper Mississippi was developed they eventually had boatyards of their own that built many fine boats for the local trades Sidewheel packet wood hull built at Shousetown, Pa. (hull), and completed at Pittsburgh, 1848. Originally built for the Pittsburgh-Cincinnati trade, she only ran there for the 1849 season. She was then sold to Orrin Smith who brought her to the Upper Mississippi in 1850. She was the first boat to arrive at St. Paul in that season. She was the first boat to pass through Lake Pepin in the 1852 season. In 1853 she made 29 trips between Galena and St Paul. She was again the first arrival in St. Paul in 1854. When under the command of Capt. Smith, a Sabbath observer, she was always laid up on Sundays.


Comparing the Downing Timeline
Comparing the Downing Timeline with the Blackwell Timeline

Return to Downing Page        

Note that John Blackwell b. 1775 is similar to the birth date of Phinehas Downing b. 1735.  If the Downing timeline was to follow the Blackwell timeline, then Phinehas Downing would be of the 10th Generation in the Downing Lineage.  Both are in the 10th Generation of the Blackwell Family.  We do not know the true starting position of the Downing Family or the Blackwell Family.  As a result, I have adjusted the Downing timeline figures to indicate an accurate timeline with the Blackwell figures.  This means that the information on this website starts the Downing timeline at the 7th Generation.  The Blackwell timeline starts at he 10th Generation even though we believe we have found the 9th but unconfirmed at this time. 


Marriage by License
Marriage by License

Some place within my website, I give improper information on "Marriage by License".  What it meant in the past and what it means today to be married by "License" is far different then what I thought it was.  I was under the impression it was due to the young age of the people getting married and permission was needed by either a parent or guardian.  I was wrong on that.  Joyce Cummings in England has corrected me on this topic.  I have copied that portion of her email to me in order to show you the accurate meaning of "Marriage by License"

If a marriage was by "licence" it has nothing at all to do with the bride & groom being young.

A "Special Licence" was usually asked for by the groom, he also had to have two guarantors who were named on the licence, and if memory serves me right, they had to put up a sum of money as a "surety".

A "Special License" is still available today.  It is, and always has been for couples who want to marry quickly for some reason or other within the next 3 or 4 days, otherwise "banns" have to be "published" for three weeks before the couple can marry. Nowadays, banns are still called for 3 successive Sundays if the marriage is to be in church, or if a civil ceremony happened in the Registry Office.

If the bride or groom were "under age" - I have never seen an actual age given, but appears most likely aged about 13/14years, then they had MINOR put in the "age box", otherwise you will find the words "of full age". I do have one of my ancestors marriage certificate with MINOR written for the
bride, I have yet to find a baptism (if she had one) to work out how old she may have been.  This one was in 1837 and just made the start of the official registrations of births, marriages and deaths.

Joyce Cummings  UK.